Why in News ?
- Recently, the Annual State of Education Report (ASER) survey has been released which provides a glimpse into the levels of learning loss that students in rural India are suffering.
- ASER is a nationwide survey of rural education and learning outcomes in terms of reading and arithmetic skills that has been conducted by the NGO Pratham for the last 15 years.
Vedic & Later vedic literature
- Vedas - Most ancient Indian texts contain religious themes and these are known as Vedas. The Vedas give reliable information about the culture and civilization of the Vedic period, but do not reveal the political history. They are assigned to c. 1500–500 B.C. The Vedas are four in number. The Rig Veda mainly consists of prayers. The other three, Sama, Yajur and Atharva-contain prayers, rituals, magic and mythological stories.
- Brahmanas, Aranyakas, and Upanishads - The later Vedic literature includes the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, and the Upanishads. The Brahmanas The Brahmanas were composed after the vedas to explain the hymns of the vedas. Every veda has several Brahmanas attached to it. Aranyakas and Upanishads give speeches on different spiritual and philosophical problems.
- Darshans are the auxiliary treaties of the vedas. There are six schools of Indian philosophy known as Shad-Darshans. These are Sankhya (Kapil), Yoga (Patanjali), Nyaya (Akshapad Gautam), Vaishesika (Uluka Kanada), Purva Mimansa (Jaimini) and Vedanta or Uttar Mimansa (Badarayana).
Some important text of ancient India
- Arthashastra: It was composed by Kautilya (Chanakya). It gives a methodological analysis of political and economic conditions of the Mauryan period.
- Mudra-rakshasa: It was written by Vishakh Dutt during Gupta Period. It explains the destruction of the Nandas by Chandra Gupta Maurya with the help of Chanakya.
- Astadhyayee composed by Panini, is a grammar on which Patanjali has written annotation. Its name is Mahabhashya.
- Kalidash’s Abhijnayan Shakuntalam and Malvikagnimitram explain the conditions of society and culture of the Gupta’s period.
- Harsha’s courtier poet Banabhatta wrote ‘Harshacharita’.
- In 12th century A.D Kalhana wrote ‘Rajtarangini’ describing about the rulers of Kashmir. Rajtarangini is considered to be the first historical book of India.
Education System In India During British Rule
- In 1791, a Sanskrit College was started in Varanasi by Jonathan Duncan for the study of Hindu philosophy and laws.
- The Charter Act of 1813 was the first step towards education being made an objective of the government.
- In 1835, it was decided that western sciences and literature would be imparted to Indians through the medium of English by Lord William Bentinck’s government.
- In 1835, the Elphinstone College (Bombay) and the Calcutta Medical College were established.Wood’s Despatch (1854) : Wood suggested that primary schools must adopt vernacular languages, high schools must adopt Anglo-vernacular language and at college-level English should be the medium of education. This is called the ‘Magna Carta of English education in India.’