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Water Resources

Mon 28 Dec, 2020

Why in News ?

  • Recently, the National Water Mission (NWM), Ministry of Jal Shakti in collaboration with Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan (NYKS), Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports have launched the ‘Catch the Rain’ Awareness Generation Campaign.
  • National Water Mission: Aims to conserve water, minimise wastage and ensure more equitable distribution both across and within states through integrated water resources development and management.

Jal Shakti Ministry and Jal Jeevan Mission:

  • Jal Shakti Ministry was formed to tackle water issues holistically.
  • Jal Jeevan mission aims to provide piped water to all rural households by 2024.Static G .K

I. Surface Water Resources

  • There are four major sources of surface water:

1. Rivers

2. Lakes

3. Ponds

4. Tanks

  • Water flow in a river depends on size of its catchment area or river basin and rainfall within its catchment area.
  • Rivers like the Ganga, the Brahmaputra, and the Indus have huge catchment areas. Given that precipitation is relatively high in the catchment areas of the Ganga, the Brahmaputra and the Barak rivers, these rivers, although account for only about one-third of the total area in the country, have 60 per cent of the total surface water resources.
  • Much of the annual water flow in south Indian rivers like the Godavari, the Krishna, and the Kaveri has been harnessed, but it is yet to be done in the Brahmaputra and the Ganga basins.

II. Groundwater Resources

  • The total replenishable groundwater resources in the country are about 432 cubic km.
  • The level of groundwater ulitlisation is relatively high in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. Indus river has the highest level of groundwater utilisation.

III. Lagoons and Backwaters

  • India has a vast coastline (7517 km) and the coasts are very indented (edge with zig-zag lines) in some states, which has led to formation of many lagoons and lakes.
  • Kerala, Odisha and West Bengal have vast surface water resources in these lagoons and lakes.
  • Generally brackish, the water is used for fishing and irrigating certain varieties of paddy crops, coconut, etc.