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Sandalwood Spike Disease

Tue 29 Sep, 2020

Why in News ?

Recently, sandalwood trees in the forests of Karnataka and Kerala are facing a serious threat due to the disastrous Sandalwood Spike Disease. This Disease is caused by Phytoplasmas which are bacterial parasites of plant tissues and only option to avoid this disease is to cut and remove the infected tree.

Red Sandalwood (Pterocarpus santalinus)

  • Found - Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests of the Palakonda and Seshachalam hill ranges of Andhra Pradesh and also found in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.  Aromatic oil is extracted from sandalwood by distillation.
  • In the year 1998, the sandalwood tree is classified in the 'near threatened' category in the Red List of IUCN.
  • Tropical deciduous Forests or Monsoon Forests - are found in places with rainfall ranging from 70 cm to 200 cm. Their types are -
  • Humid Deciduous Forests: - Found in regions with 100 to 200 cm rainfall such as the eastern slope of Western Ghats, Odisha, Giripad of Himalayas, North Eastern states. Examples- Teak, Sheesham, Sal, Hurra, Mahua,  Amla, Semal,  Kusum and Chandan.
  • ·   Dry Deciduous Forests: - Found in places with 70 to 100 cm rainfall, such as the peninsula Uttar Pradesh, Bihar. Examples- Tendu, Palash, Amaltas, Plum, Khair, Exclub, Sandalwood, Mango, Fisherman etc.

International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

  • ·It's an international organization (NGO) established in 1948 and its headquarters are located in Gland, Switzerland.
  • ·It publishes Red List or Red Data List or Red Book
Karnataka Kerala
  • Founded: 1 November 1956 (formerly Mysore State)
  • Capital: Bangalore
  • Major Language: Kannada (other sTulu & Konkani languages)
  • Current Governor: Wajubhai Rudabhai Wala
  • Chief Minister: B.S. Yedayurappa
  • Largest producer of chromite in India
  • The city of Bangalore is the country's largest biosphere in the biotechnology sector.
  • Major Ports: Mangalore or New Mangalore
  • Jog falls on Sharavati river
  • Forests and National Parks: Bandipur Wildlife Sanctuary, Nagarhole National Park, Mudumalai National Park
  • Founded: 1 November 1956
  • Capital- Thiruvananthapuram
  • Main language: Malayalam
  • Governor: Arif Mohammad Khan
  • Chief Minister: Pinarayi Vijayan
  • India's spice garden'
  • Onam festival on astronomical New Year
  • Navratri is celebrated as Saraswati Puja in Kerala.
  • Main rivers: 'Murala', 'Tamraparni', 'Netravati' and 'Saraswati'
  • Major Projects: Malampuzha, Chalakudy, Peachy, Pampa, Periyar, Chittoorpuja, Kuttiyadi
  • Forests and National Parks: Eravikulam National Park, Silent Valley National Park, Pampadum Shola National Park, Mathikettan Shola National Park