Recently, the Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the National Education Policy 2020 based on the draft prepared by a committee of experts headed by former ISRO Chief K Kasturirangan. This is the first education policy of the 21st century. This policy is aligned to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
- In the year 1948, with the formation of University Education Commission under the chairmanship of Dr. Radhakrishnan, the work of streamlining the education system in India started. A proposal on education policy was published in 1968 based on the recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission headed by Laxmanaswamy Mudaliar in the year 1952, and the Education Commission headed by Daulat Singh Kothari in 1964.
- The new National Education Policy was implemented in May 1986, which was still in operation. Meanwhile, a review committee headed by Acharya Ramamurthy in 1990 to review the National Education Policy, and in 1993 Prof. Yashpal Committee was formed.Major
- The 10+2 structure of school curricula is to be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 curricular structure. This will bring the hitherto uncovered age group of 3-6 years under the school curriculum, which has been recognized globally as the crucial stage for the development of mental faculties of a child.
- The new system will also have 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi/ pre-schooling. NCERT will develop a National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for Early Childhood Care and Education (NCPFECCE) for children up to the age of 8.
- The planning and implementation of ECCE will be carried out jointly by the Ministries of HRD, Women and Child Development (WCD), Health and Family Welfare (HFW), and Tribal Affairs.
- The policy calls for the setting up of a National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy by MHRD. States will prepare an implementation plan for attaining universal foundational literacy and numeracy in all primary schools for all learners by grade 3 by 2025. A National Book Promotion Policy is to be formulated.
- The policy envisages a shift from summative assessment to regular and formative assessment, which is more competency-based, promotes learning and development, and tests higher-order skills, such as analysis, critical thinking, and conceptual clarity.
- Board exams for Grades 10 and 12 will be continued, but redesigned with holistic development as the aim. A new National Assessment Centre, PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development), will be set up as a standard-setting body.